Lithologic, macrostructural, microstructural, geophysical, and in situ gas permeability data from a natural exposure of highly porous, faulted and fractured tuffaceous sediments and interbedded ash-fall deposits near Bishop, California, are presented and analyzed in relation to published geologic information. This natural analog study was motivated by the need to evaluate potential length scales over which lateral flow diversion might occur above and within the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Lateral diversion of flow in the overlying Paintbrush Tuff was previously proposed by others as a natural barrier that might protect a proposed high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel repository from percolating water. Because the length scale for capillary barrier breakthrough and leakage is decreased in the presence of subvertical structural heterogeneities, we characterized a horst-bounding fault, small-displacement normal faults within a footwall deformation zone, and secondary heterogeneities within two beds dissected by the faults. Critical deformation-related features that may influence fluid flow within bedded tuffaceous sediments include (1) permeability anisotropy imposed by steeply dipping faults and stratigraphic layering; (2) fault zone widths and styles, which are dependent on bed thickness and ash, glass, and clay content; and (3) fracture intensities and overprinting mechanisms (associated with fault deformation and vertical and nonvertical fracture orientations), which strongly influence the hydrogeologic heterogeneity of units they dissect. Microstructural analysis reveals structurally induced porosity variations at the micrometer to millimeter scale, gas permeability data show the influence of deformation on permeability at the centimeter to tens of centimeters scale, and resistivity and ground-penetrating radar data show lateral variations on the meter to tens of meters scale in horizontally bedded layers. All together, these observations and data show heterogeneity over seven orders of magnitude of length scale. Structurally enhanced porosity and permeability heterogeneities will tend to limit the length scale of lateral flow diversion, redirect flow downward, and enhance vertical fluid movement within the vadose zone.
- Received 21 September 2011.
- Accepted 28 October 2011.
- © 2011 Geological Society of America